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The ability to see our world and life through the experiences of someone of a different culture and background is rare. It’s a gift—and it can be a jolt to our sensibilities and assumptions. The world we thought we knew can look very different through someone else’s eyes. That’s one reason why storytelling can be such a powerful form of communication.

And so it is that the opening paragraph of writer Alexis Wright’s Carpentaria quickly grabs a reader’s attention: “The bells peal everywhere. Church bells calling the faithful to the tabernacle where the gates of heaven will open, but not for the wicked. Calling innocent little black girls from a distant community where the white dove bearing an olive branch never lands. Little girls who come back home after church on Sunday, who look around themselves at the human fallout and announce matter-of-factly, Armageddon begins here.1

It seems a simple, if tragic, picture punctuated by a perhaps innocent statement. But it’s a profound theological re-reading of a world in which many of us live so blithely, so comfortably. It’s the voice of the poor, the downtrodden, and the forgotten, too often ignored or simply unnoticed amid the noise of our world.

Who Writes History?

It has been said many times that history is written by the winners. In the violent history of our world’s many wars and other conflicts, the victors are the survivors, and thus are the ones given the opportunity to tell the story of the battle or contest in which they—obviously—were gloriously and justly victorious. However, contemporary historians have increasingly recognized the other sides of these stories—that there are other voices to be heard and other perspectives to be gained.

But there is perhaps still more to hearing these other voices than that. In the words of Professor Scott Bader-Saye, a professor of theological ethics at the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania: “Too often, the winners get to write not only the histories but also the theologies.”2 Like the stories themselves, the winners dominate the philosophies and theologies assumed in the stories and histories we tell—and use to explain the way the world is.

Perhaps this is nowhere more obvious than in the popular concepts of judgment at the end of world history or in some form of afterlife. From Dante’s Inferno, Michelangelo’s The Last Judgment on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and Jonathan Edwards’s famous sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” the Christian tradition has focused on the gates of heaven being shut to the wicked, who instead meet some much nastier fate. It seems to fit with a “winner’s theology,” urging those who might consider stepping out of line to consider the eternal implications of their actions.

Judgment of Hope

But while some such descriptions of God’s judgment can be found in the Bible, significantly more emphasis is placed on the hope of God’s judgment and its ultimate goodness. In Reflections on the Psalms, C. S. Lewis observes that the biblical writings of the psalms and the prophets “are full of the longing for judgment, and regard the announcement that ‘judgment’ is coming as good news.”3 This is the voice—and theology— of the oppressed and the forgotten, crying out for the wrongs to be set right and for their complaints to be heard. This requires a different way of seeing, a perspective of life from places where the white dove never lands and it might seem Armageddon has already begun.

It’s also a plea that someone should be taking note of the wrongs done in our world—and a reminder that Someone will. While suffering, oppression, and tragedy are hard enough to bear in their own right, the injury is harder still if it appears to go unnoticed. The possible weightlessness of sorrow is heavier than its initial burden. A world without consequences for evil is the ultimate in cruel absurdity.

This is the essential argument of the Bible’s book of Ecclesiastes, a book that hardly fits with many attempts at neat formulations of faith. The philosopher’s cry of “Meaningless! Meaningless!” echoes through the pages of this ancient wisdom literature, as item by item the various aspects of life as we know it are discounted as not worth the effort. Work, wealth, wisdom, and pleasure are all dismissed as meaningless. Even the difference between good and evil is observed as often counting for little: “In this life, good people are often treated as though they were wicked, and wicked people are often treated as though they were good. This is so meaningless!” (Ecclesiastes 8:14, NLT).4

But at the end of his diatribe, the philosopher takes a sudden turn. In the midst of his myriad examples of meaninglessness, he says, hold on a minute, God is going to judge so that everything is not meaningless. In fact, in God’s final judgment everything and everyone will matter. Therefore, he says, “Fear God and keep His commandments”—meaning love and honor God, learn to do right, and seek goodness (see Ecclesiastes 12:13, 14).

Who is God?

The hope of judgment comes down to what one believes about the core nature of God, life, and the world in which we live: “I believe that you can protest against the evil in the world only if you believe in a good God,” writes Yale University theology professor, Miroslav Volf. “Otherwise the protest doesn’t make sense. I protest with God against God.”5

The Bible urges that we live in a world created and loved by God, but which has gone wrong, and in which God is working toward His plan for re-creation, preeminently through the life and death of Jesus. God’s judgment is a key part of His setting right the wrongs in our world. That must be good news for those who are on the receiving end of so many of the world’s wrongs. And we only fail to appreciate this hope as we fail to hear the voices and see with the eyes of those who are marginalized, brutalized, and exploited.

But not only does this different perspective give us a new appreciation of the hope of judgment—it then changes our view of others. “People who believe that God will turn the world upside down—people like Mary with her Magnificat, pulling down the mighty from their thrones and exalting the humble and meek [see Luke 1:46–55]—are not going to be backward in getting on with some world-changing in the present.”6

To begin to see the world from God’s viewpoint is the biggest perspective shift. And as we anticipate God’s promise to judge the world and join His mission to set our world right, the hope of judgment begins to change the world today.

1Alexis Wright, Carpentaria (Artarmon NSW, Australia: Giramondo Publishing Company, 2007).
2Scott Bader-Saye, Following Jesus in a Culture of Fear (Ada, Mich.: Brazos Press, 2007).
3C. S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1964).
4The Holy Bible, New Living Translation, copyright 1996. Used by permission of Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., Wheaton, Illinois 60189. All rights reserved.
5 Miroslav Volf, Free of Charge (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2006).
6N. T. Wright, Surprised By Hope: Rethinking Heaven, the Resurrection, and the Mission of the Church (New York: Harper Collins, 2008).

The Hope of Judgment

by Nathan Brown
From the August 2008 Signs